Anatomy of the ankle ligaments: a pictorial essay

Abstract Understanding the anatomy of the ankle ligaments is important for correct diagnosis and treatment. Ankle ligament injury is the most frequent cause of acute ankle pain. Chronic ankle pain often finds its cause in laxity of one of the ankle ligaments. In this pictorial essay, the ligaments around the ankle are grouped, depending on their anatomic orientation, and each of the ankle ligaments is discussed in detail. Keywords Ankle anatomy , Lateral collateral ligament , Medial collateral ligament ,Ankle impingement , Ankle sprain   Anatomy of the ankle ligaments:…

Περισσότερα

Performance and patient training in walkinng with fes by thoracic-level paraplegics

Abstract Below is a discussion of an FDA-approved noninvasive Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) System for ambulation by traumatic T1 to T12 paraplegics having no sensation and no motor function below their spinal cord injury (SCI). The system’s ambulation training, its ambulation performance evaluation and its medical evaluation are summarized. Key words: FES (functional electrical stimulation), paraplegia, thoracic SCI, training, walking performance, medical evaluation. Performance and patient training in walkinng with fes by thoracic-level paraplegics

Περισσότερα